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J Korean Matern Child Health > Volume 23(2); 2019 > Article
Journal of Korean Maternal and Child Health 2019;23(2):93-100.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21896/jksmch.2019.23.2.93    Published online April 30, 2019.
The Association between Land Use Rate and Low Birth Weight Rate in Seoul: Ecological Study
Youngrin Kwag1, Jongmin Oh1, Min-ho Kim2, Shinhee Ye1,3, Eun-Hee Ha1
1Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
2Ewha institute of Convergence Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
3Ewha institute of Convergence Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
서울시 토지이용률과 저체중아 출생률 간의 관련성: 생태학적 연구
곽영린1, 오종민1, 김민호2, 예신희1,3, 하은희1
1이화여자대학교 의과대학 직업환경의학교실
2이화의료원 이화융합의학연구원
3산업안전보건공단 산업안전보건연구원
Correspondence:  Eun-Hee Ha, Tel: 02-2650-5757, Fax: 02-2653-1086, 
Email: eunheeha@ewha.ac.kr
Received: 1 February 2019   • Revised: 13 March 2019   • Accepted: 15 March 2019
This paper is based on an ecological study. From 2008 to 2014, we identified the differences in the Low Birth Weight (LBW) rate according to land use rate among the 25 autonomous regions of Seoul. We also demonstrated the effects of ecological environmental differences on maternal outcomes.
The National Statistical Office obtained data of residential areas and rates, commercial areas and rates, industrial areas and rates, green areas and rates of the 25 autonomous regions from 2008 to 2014. It also obtained data regarding low birth weight rates for the same region and period. The rate of land use is divided into four stages by residential rate, three by commercial rate, three by industrial rate, and four by green area rate The higher the step, the higher the rate is. The method by Baron and Kenny was used to investigate the mediating effects of the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, CO) on LBW and its relationship to land use in each district of Seoul. The relationship between the change of land use and LBW rate in each region was analyzed with general regression analysis and cluster analysis.
This study shows that as the rate of green area to overall area increases in Seoul’s industrial area, a causal effect is observed with low birth weight, mediated by SO2. Regression analysis revealed that LBW rates were significantly higher in heavily industrial areas (beta=1.27, SE=0.27, p<0.05), while LBW rate was significantly lower in considerably greener areas (beta=-2.21, SE=0.39, p<0.05).
We confirmed differences in the relationship between residential, commercial, industrial, and green areas, air pollutants, and LBW rate. Areas with high industrial rates have a high LBW rate, while areas with high green rates have a low LBW rate. The autonomous land use ratio includes direct environmental factors. Therefore, pregnant women who are living in highly industrial areas should be especially careful to manage their living environment.
Key Words: low birth weight, land use, environment, green area rate, air pollutants

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